조선총독부의 우두정책과 두창의 지속
A Study on the Anti-smallpox Policy of Joseon Government-General
Departmemt of History, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, KOREA. Tel: 82-2-961-9271/ E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
In the beginning of the colonial era, the Joseon Government-General's
most important medical policy was related to the disease of smallpox. The
Government-General reused some of policies established by the Great Han
Empire. They also made an effort to improve the shortcomings in that
anti-smallpox policy by phasing out technically insufficient vaccinators and
by incubating female vaccinators. However, compulsory vaccination was
the major component of the Government-General’s anti-smallpox policy.
The vaccination effort was lead by police officers and the frequency of
vaccinations was increased two-fold. When the anti-smallpox policy
became effective in 1910, the incidence of smallpox decreased.
However, after 1919, the incidence of smallpox began to increase once
more. According to the Government-General, this increase was the result
of a decrease in the frequency of vaccinations. Therefore, in 1923, the
Government-General increased the frequency of vaccinations from twice
to three times by implementing the Joseon Cowpox Ordinance. Under this policy
adults were also vaccinated. Interventions by local organizations
were also expanded. However, through the end of the colonial era,
smallpox never fully disappeared in Joseon. The lower-than-expected
rate of vaccination has been identified as one of important reasons for
the constant presence of this pathogenesis. Incomplete census registration
was identified as the major reason for the decrease in the vaccination
rate. Insufficient technologies for disseminating the smallpox vaccine and
ambiguity with regard to the vaccine’s effectiveness also prevented the
people of Joseon from voluntarily obtaining their vaccinations.
To increase the rate of vaccination, it was necessary to secure the
cooperation of Koreans. However, that cooperation has never been
harmonious. No records exist of any discussions related to the problem
of smallpox or the effect of the anti-smallpox vaccination, which was
a reasonable expectation for the citizens of Joseon. Moreover, the
Government-General kept insisting that the Joseon citizens’ ideas about
the need for sanitary and effective vaccinations were insufficient. The
sought-after cooperation was never easy, and this resulted in the extensive
duration of outbreaks of smallpox.
Anti-smallpox Vaccination, Smallpox, Joseon Government-General, Census Registration, Sanitary Thought
大 · 韓 · 醫 · 史 · 學 · 會
The Korean Society for the History of Medicine
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