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            2000 12 (9 2ȣ)


Korean J Med Hist.    2000 Dec; 9(2): 141-162



Ǻ ܿ ־ ࿡
A Bibliographic Study on Tonguibigan With a special reference to its influence on Japan and China


Kyung Ryun Park




Central Library Wonkwang University, Korea.


In this work my main focus was put on two things; first to examine the history of publication of Tonguibogam() within the nation with particular interest in the changing aspect observed from the bibliographical terms and second to examine the process through which Tonguibogam() was introduced to Japan and China and the influence the book brought the two nations Some of the findings concerning the domestic publication of Tonguibogam() are as follows The first printing of the book was made in 1613 under the auspice of Naeuiwon(Ү) one of the government organs in the capital in charge of medical affairs It was printed with wooden movable type carved at Hullyeontogam(֨Դ) the military training bureau As for the question of the history of the domestic publication of Tonguibogam() after the first printing in 1613 we don't have enough data yet Although there are many different editions of Tonguibogam() extant today with different size and different font each I could find so far only three copies which carry the data concerning its publication one printed in 1659 by the Kyongsang provincial government with newly engraved woodblock one printed in 1754 again by the Kyongsang provincial government with reengraved woodblock and one printed in 1814 by the Cholla provincial government with newly reengraved woodblock Each of the three was a revised edition at the time of its publication because every time it was based on the copy corrected by Naeuiwon(Ү) In addition to the above mentioned three different editions of Tonguibogam() three are quite a few copies originally printed with wooden movable type of different font at various time and various places None of them has any record concerning the date and place of its publication and none of them shows that it was based on the Naeuiwon(Ү) corrected version as a mother copy Accordingly all of them carry quite a few erratum misprinting and it seems quite certain that all of them were produced before 1659 I also feel certain that the 1724 Japanese edition was based on one of the pre1659 copies In Japan the first publication of Tonguibogam() was made in the year of 1724 (the 9th year of Kyoho() in Japanese year title) under the auspice of the Japanese government i e the Tokugawa Bakuf(حݤ) The book carries a preface written by a man named Fubihara() then the vice president of national university and a postscript written by Minamoto mototoru() a government attached monk physician It was a woodblock printing and the title of the book was "KankokuTeisei Tonguibogam(ίʾ) The reason the word Kankoku-Teisei(ίʾ) "the Revised Edition Printed with Offi- cially Engraved Woodblocks" was added to the title was that the publication was made by the government and before publication the government ordered Minamoto to read through the original Tonguibogam() throuhgly and make corrections if any misprinting's be found Minamoto also put the socalled kunto() marks the Japanese way of punctuation system on the original text all the way so that they could read it in their own way As for the question of what edition of Tonguibogam() the Japanese used as a mother copy and when and how the mother copy had been brought to Japan are not clear at all But judging from the fact that it carries quite a few erratum in spite of their efforts at proofreading before engraving the woodblock it seems likely that the Tonguibogam() they used as a mother copy was the one which was printed in Korea before 1659 In 1659 Tongui-bogam() was published in Korea by the Kyongsang provincial government() in Taegu() with newly engraved woodblock According to the attached record concerning its publication it was a revised edition based on the Naeuiwon(Ү)-corrected-copy and this edition carries no misprintings in it at all On the other hand among the various editions of the extant Tonguibogam() today we can find some copy which originally printed from wooden movable type carries almost the same misprinting as those found in the 1724 Japanese edition In order words we are quite certain that the mother copy of the 1724 Japanese edition was brought to Japan before the Naeuiwoncorrectededition began to appear in Korea in 1659 The second publication of Tonguibogam() in Japan was made in 1799 in the city of Osaka() It was reprinted from the original woodblock of 1724 edition and this second edition was later used in China in 1890 as a mother copy The first publication of Tonguibogam() in China was made in the year of 1766 It was a woodblock edition printed in Kwangtung() province located in the southern end of China Acording to the attached preface written by a high ranking official named N ng () a native of Kwangtung() area the publication was originally initiated by the governor of that province Mr Wang() who deeply admired the value of Tonguibogam() Since the Tonguibogam() at that time was available only in Bigak() the palace library in Peijing() the capital of the Ch'ing dynasty the governor Mr Wang had to send a man to Peijing to make a manuscript copy of Tonguibogam() of 25 the volumes But unfortu- nately Mr Wang left his post before his plan to publish the book was realized and it was thanks to another native man named Chwahanmun() who donated big money to cover the expenses of publication The 1766 edition of Tonguibogam() one copy of which is now in the possession of Kyungbuk University library is understandably not a good copy because it has many erratum in it But it was reprinted afterwards sometimes with reengraved woodblock many times at various places in China The second publication of Tonguibogam() in China appeared in 1890 It carries a preface written by Mincheyusang() It was based on the Japanese edition printed in 1799 in Oosaka() What is interesting with Mr Min's preface is that it shows their deep admiration of the value of Tonguibogam() on one hand and at the same time very critical attitude toward the basic philosophy of H jun on the other hand.


Tongui-bogam() Japanese edition Chinese edition

The Korean Society for the History of Medicine

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